Notes (CTFP 02/31): Types and Functions

2 Types and Functions

2.3 What are Types

Set: A category whose objects are sets and whose arrows are functions.

Hask: Set, except every set is extended with the bottom element _|_, indicating non-termination.

The question of whether Hask is actually a category appears to be an interesting one

[TODO: Workthrough of Fast and Loose Reasoning is Morally Correct]

2.4 Why Do we need a Mathematical Model

operational semantics: Describing how a program runs by trying to directly reason about how it operates on some idealized abstract machine.

denotational semantics: Describing how a program runs by building a mathematical structure that corresponds to the program and proving theorems about that structure.

2.5 Pure and Dirty Functions

pure function: A function that returns the same output for the same input, and whose output and input are explicit.

I wonder if a function in, for example, C could be considered pure, but only if we treat the whole state of the machine, or maybe the whole state of the universe as the input and output types.

2.6 Examples of Types

Void: The type with no elements (other than _|_, of course, if we’re in Hask)

(): Unit, the type with only one element: ()

2.6 Challenges

1 through 4: [TODO: Memoization in Haskell.]

  1. 4 functions: not :: Bool -> Bool id_bool :: Bool -> Bool (const True) :: Bool -> Bool (const False) :: Bool -> Bool

  2. absurdUnit :: Void -> ()
    absurdTrue :: Void -> Bool
    absurdFalse :: Void -> Bool
    id_Void :: Void -> Void
    id_unit :: () -> ()
    id_bool :: Bool -> Bool
    not :: Bool -> Bool
    (const True) :: Bool -> Bool
    (const False) :: Bool -> Bool
    (const True)  :: () -> Bool
    (const False) :: () -> Bool
    unit :: Bool -> ()

[TODO: Diagram]